Africa AHEAD  References

The following publications and presentation all have links to the work of  Africa AHEAD in some way, having been written by staff, partners or associates of Africa AHEAD.

  1. Africa AHEAD  (2014) Cholera Mitigation through Community Health Clubs, Manicaland Province, Zimbabwe. Grant No AID- 613-G-12-00001. USAID Report.
  2. Brooks, J., Adams, A., Bendjemil, S., & Rosenfeld, J. (2015) Putting heads and hands together to change knowledge and behaviors: Community Health Clubs in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.  Presentation.
  3. CBEHPP Website: Registry of Community Health Clubs.
  4. Deffner, J. (2013). Participatory implementation of sanitation infrastructure in urban areas of north-central Namibia. WHOCC Newsletter. July 2013. 1-6.
  5. Ekane. N.  (2014) Community-based Sanitation Programs in Rwanda. Presentation. Africa AHEAD/Stockholm Environment Institute Side Event. World Water Week, Stockholm
  6. Maksimsovski, N & Waterkeyn, A. (2010) The Community Health Club Approach in Informal Settlements: Case study from eThekwini municipality, Kwa Zulu Natal, South Africa. Water Institute of South Africa, Durban. South Africa.
  7. Mathew. B. &  Mukuwe.R. (1999) Health Clubs- Hygiene Education in Bikita IRWSSP. WEDC. Water Engineering & Development Centre Conference. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  8. Matimati, R.   (2012)   Classic CHC:  The Zimbabwe Experience. Africa  AHEAD Side Event. Water and Health Conference University of North Carolina.
  9. Ministry of Health / UNICEF (2012) Gahunda y’abaturage yo Guteza Imbere Ubukikije.Inyoborabiganiro yagenewe abazahugura kelebe z’isuku n’abajyanama b’ubuzima: Manual for Community Health Club facilitators. Rwanda.
  10. Ministry of Health (2010) Roadmap for Community Based Environmental Health Promotion Programme (CBEHPP) Rwanda.
  11. Nash. L. (2014) Sharing the power of Community Health Clubs. Africa AHEAD/Stockholm Environment Institute Side Event. World Water Week, Stockholm. You Tube Video
  12. Nordhauser J & Rosenfeld J. Adapting a water, sanitation, and hygiene picture-based curriculum  in the Dominican Republic.Global Health Promotion 1757-9759; Vol 0(0): 1–9; 848111.
  13. Ntakarutimana A, Ekane N. 2017 Performance of community health clubs in transforming sanitation and hygiene conditions
  14. Rosenfeld, J.   (2010) Incremental Improvements to Community Water Supply Systems through Community Health Clubs in the Umzimkhulu Local Municipality.  International Water Association.  Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  15. Rosenfeld. J. (2012)   CHCs in the  Dominican Republic. Africa  AHEAD Side Event. Water and Health Conference University of North Carolina.
  16. Rosenfeld. J. (2016) Building Common-Unity one Club at a Time. TED Video
  17. Rosenfeld J and Taylor, B. (2015) Global Health in the Dominican Republic: Progress and Obstacles to Scale Up and Implementation of Successful Programs. EDGS Working Paper. Number 35. University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio Center for Medical Humanities and Ethics.
  18. Rosenfeld J & Waterkeyn J.   (2009) Using Cell Phones to monitor and evaluate behaviour change through Community Health Clubs in South Africa.Water Engineering & Development Centre 
  19. Rosemarin. A.  & Ndahiro.A. (2014). Hygiene Behaviour Change through CBEHPP in Rwanda. Africa AHEAD/Stockholm Environment Institute Side Event. World Water Week, Stockholm. YouTubeVideo
  20. Saywel. D.   (2012)  CLTS and CHC – Complementary or Contradictory? Africa  AHEAD Side Event. Water and Health Conference University of North Carolina. Presentation
  21. Waterkeyn, A. and Waterkeyn J. (2002.) Final Project Report. Watershed. CARE. Sierra Leone.
  22. Waterkeyn, A. (2005)  Hygiene & Sanitation Strategies in Uganda: How to achieve sustainable behaviour change? 31st  Water Engineering & Development Centre Conference: Kampala. Uganda.
  23. Waterkeyn. A. (2014) Vision 5 x 5: Scaling up Community Health Clubs. Africa AHEAD/Stockholm Environment Institute Side Event. World Water Week, Stockholm.
  24. Waterkeyn. A. (2012) The Dissemination and Scale up of  CHCs. Africa  AHEAD Side Event. Water and Health Conference University of North Carolina. Presentation
  25. Waterkeyn. A. (2013)    CHCs sparking self supply  in Zimbabwe.Water and Health Conference. University of North Carolina. Presentation
  26. Waterkeyn, J.  (1999) Structured Participation in Community Health Clubs. Water Engineering & Development Centre Conference. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
  27. Waterkeyn, J. (2003) Cost Effective Health Promotion: Community Health Clubs. 29th Water Engineering & Development Centre Conference. Abuja, Nigeria.
  28. Waterkeyn, J. (2005) Decreasing Communicable Diseases Through Improved Hygiene in Community Health Clubs. 31st  Water Engineering & Development Centre Conference: Kampala. 
  29. Waterkeyn, J. (2006) District Health Promotion using the Consensus Approach. WELL / DFID / London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Manual
  30. Waterkeyn, J. (2010) Hygiene Behaviour Change through the Community Health Club Approach: a cost effective strategy to achieve the Millennium Developments Goals for Improved Sanitation in Africa. PhD Thesis published with Lambert Academic Publishing. Germany.  Full Thesis
  31. Waterkeyn, J.  (2012) Best Practice in Hygiene Promotion Programme:  an evaluation template for assessing cost-effectiveness. University of North Carolina – Water Institute
  32. Waterkeyn. J.   (2012) The Mechanics of Hygiene Behaviour Change. Africa  AHEAD Side Event. Water and Health Conference University of North Carolina.
  33. Waterkeyn, J. (2012) Best Practice in Health Promotion: comparing CHC & CLTS. Africa  AHEAD Side Event. Water and Health Conference University of North Carolina.
  34. Waterkeyn. J. (2013) Integration, Sustainability, Institutionalisation & Scale.Water and Health Conference. University of North Carolina.
  35. Waterkeyn. J. (2014)  I am not nothing now: how Community Health Clubs empower womenAfrica AHEAD/Stockholm Environment Institute Side Event. World Water Week, Stockholm. Presentation
  36. Waterkeyn. J.  (2015) A Practical Model to Achieve 8 x Sustainable Development Goals. Water and Health Conference. University of North Carolina
  37. Waterkeyn, J & Cairncross, S. (2005) Creating a demand for sanitation through Community Health Clubs:  a cost effective intervention in two districts of Zimbabwe.Journal of Social Science and Medicine. 61. p.1958-1970
  38. Waterkeyn J & Waterkeyn. A.  (2000) Demand Led Sanitation in Zimbabwe. Water Engineering & Development Centre: Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  39. Waterkeyn J & Waterkeyn. A.  (2004) Taking PHAST the Extra Mile Through Community Health Clubs. Water Sanitation Programme – East Africa
  40. Waterkeyn, J. & Waterkeyn, A. (2013) Creating a culture of health: hygiene behaviour change in community health clubs through knowledge and positive peer pressure. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development  Vol 3 No 2. 144–155
  41. Waterkeyn, J., Waterkeyn, A., Uwingabire, F., Pantoglou, J., Ntakarutimana A., Mbirira M., Katabarwa J., Bigirimana Z., Cairncross S., Carter R. (2020). The value of monitoring data in a process evaluation of hygiene behaviour change in Community Health Clubs to explain findings from a cluster-randomised controlled trial in Rwanda. BMC Public Health 20, 98 (2020).
  42. Waterkeyn, J,   Matimati. R and Muringaniza. A.  (2010) ZOD for all – Scaling up the Community Health Club Model to meet the MDGs for Sanitation in Rural and Urban areas : Case Studies from Zimbabwe and Uganda. International Water Association Conference. Mexico City.
  43. Waterkeyn J., Matimati R., Muringaniza A., Chingono A., Ntakarutimana A., Katabarwa J., Bigirimana Z., Pantoglou J., Waterkeyn A., Cairncross S. (2019). Comparative Assessment of Hygiene Behaviour Change and Cost-effectiveness of Community Health Clubs in Rwanda and Zimbabwe. IntechOpen. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.89995         Download poster
  44. Waterkeyn J & Nga. N. (2011)Low cost-high Impact: Hygiene Behaviour Change in Vietnam in Community Health Clubs. University of North Carolina – Water Institute Conference
  45. Waterkeyn, J. Okot. P, Kwame.V.  (2005) Rapid Sanitation Uptake in the Internally Displaced People Camps of Northern Uganda through Community Health Clubs. 31st  Water Engineering & Development Centre Conference: Kampala. Uganda.
  46. Whaley, L and Webster, J. (2011) The effectiveness and sustainability of two demand driven sanitation and hygiene approaches in Zimbabwe. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. 1.1.p.20-36
  47. World Bank-WSP/AF (2002) Hygiene Promotion in Burkina Faso and Zimbabwe: New Approaches to Behaviour Change. Field Note 7: Blue Gold Series. Website


  1. Chingono, A.M. (2013)  An investigation on the impact of the Community Health Clubs Approach on Community Health– Case of Ward 19 in Mberengwa District. Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Post Graduate Diploma in Water Supplies and Sanitation. Institute of Water and Sanitation. Zimbabwe.
  2. Matimati, R. (2017) Perceptions towards Water, Sanitation and Hygiene among Communities in chipinge district, Zimbabwe.  A research project submitted for the Master of Public Health Programme Department of Life Sciences University of Roehampton London
  3. Pantoglou, J. (2018) Evaluating Hygiene Behaviour Change Within Community Health Clubs in the Rusizi District of Rwanda. Master’s thesis submitted to the Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin in  partial fulfilment of the requirements  of a Master of Science degree in International Health
  4. Rosenfeld, J. (2019). Social capital and community health clubs in Haiti  (Order No. 13903577). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (2296700336).
  5. Waterkeyn, J. (2006) Cost Effective Health Promotion
    and Hygiene Behaviour Change through Community Health Clubs. PhD Thesis submitted to London Schoool of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

Non Africa AHEAD References

Republic of Rwanda Monitoring and Evaluation Plan for the Health Sector
Strategic Plan (HSSP III), 2014.
MOH-Reports/Final_M_E_plan_for_HSSP_III_A..pdf. Accessed 6 Nov 2017.

Sinharoy SS, Schmidt W-P, Wendt R, Mfura L, Crossett E, Grepin KA, Jack W,
Rwabufigiri BN, Habyarimana J, Clasen T. Effect of community health clubs
on child diarrhea in Western Rwanda: cluster-randomized controlled trial.
Lancet Glob Health. 2017;5:e699–709
0VoR.pdf. Accessed 6 Nov 2017.

Karlan D, Appel J. Failing in the field: what we can learn when research
goes wrong. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2016. https://press.

Schmidt WP. Seven trials, seven question marks. Lancet Glob Health.
Accessed 6 Oct 2019.

Ntakarutimana A. Integrated Population Health and Environment: A CaseStudy from Rwanda and DRC. In: Proceedings of the Conference of East
African Health Research, Bujumbura; 2016.
Accessed 9 Aug 2017.

Ntakirutimana T, Gasana H, Rubuga K. Assessment of Community Based
Environmental Health Promotion Program (CBEHPP) achievements and its
sustainability in Bugesera District. 2017; WaterAid. http://www.africaahead.
Accessed 11 Nov 2017.

Srinavasan L. Tools for Community Participation. A Manual for Training Trainers
in Participatory Techniques. New York: PROWESS/United Nations Development
Programme Technical Series Involving Women in Water and Sanitation; 1990. Accessed 25 Jan 2018

Institute of Policy Analysis and Research (IPAR) – FY 2014/2015/2016 Imihigo
Evaluation – Rwanda.
evaluation_2014-2015.pdf. Accessed 2 Dec 2017.

SWIFT. Consortium Newsflash 2016. 2016:
026451. Accessed 6 Nov 2017.

Moore G, Audrey S, Barker M, Bonds L, Bonell C, Hardeman W, Moore L,
O’Cathain A, Tinati T, Wight D, Baird J. Process evaluation of complex
guidance-final/. from UK Medical Research Council (MRC)
guidance. Accessed 28 Aug 2017.

Craig P, Dieppe P, Macintyre S, Michie S, Nazareth I, Petticrew M.
Developing and Evaluating Complex Interventions. The New Medical
Research Council Guidance. BMJ. 2008; (Clinical research ed). https://www. Accessed 25 Oct 2019.