Sanitation: ZOD

Description of the Training

This topic provides 15 images of recommended good sanitation concerning Zero Open Defecation (ZOD). The cards are used to help prompt participants to discuss some of the ways that people can block bad sanitation practices, with the objective of having zero open defecation around their homes.

How to use Card set  14.a. ‘Sanitation: ZOD’ 

1. Facilitator gives out the set of pictures to the participants. 

2. Those with pictures come to the front and each one describes what is in the picture. 

3. Each time a participant explains their picture they must say whether there is open defecation (faeces exposed to the air) 

4. Make two groups: those with open defecation pictures and those with no open Defecation 

5. Ask the groups if these practices are common in the area. Remove those that are not common. 

6. Now ask the participants in the ‘Open Defecation Group’ to find a partner whose picture shows a way to make faeces safe. 

7. Each pair must then present their pictures together explaining how one picture provides the solution to open defecation.

Facilitator Instructions for Sanitation: ZOD

Click here for Facilitator Instructions (English)


  1. Open defecation
  2. Cat sanitation
  3. Open pit, wooden slab
  4. Open pit, wooden slab, grass
  5. Temporary latrine with cloth
  6. Temporary latrine with lined pit/slab
  7. Brick latrine with lined pit
  8. Cement walls and thatch
  9. Cement walls and tin roof
  10. Cement walls and slab
  11. Covered latrine
  12. Double composting
  13. Ecosan latrine/ urine separation
  14. VIP latrine

Black and White Images (Rural)

1. Defecating in Donga
5. Cat Sanitation
Covered Latrine-lined pit, concrete slab, foot operated cover
13. Traditional Latrine with Pole & Daga Walls
17. Hand Washing with Badza Stand
2. Defecating Near Home
6. Covering with SoilAsh in Rubbish Pit
9. Lining the pit
14. Precast concrete walls
18. Home Made Hand Washing near Latrine
3. Toddler defecating beside house, dog eating faeces
7. Traditional-unlined pit, pole slab
11. Improved VIP Latrine
Spiral concrete walls and tin roof
19. Bucket & Ladle
4. Covering faeces with leaves, stones
8. Improved Traditional-lined pit, concrete slab
Improved VIP latrine spiral with tin roof
16. Brick Wall & Vent Pipe


  1. Boy defecating in Donga
  2. Toddler defecating near home
  3. Toddler defecating beside house, dog eating faeces
  4. Covering faeces with leaves and stones
  5. Cat Sanitation
  6. Covering with SoilAsh in rubbish pit
  7. Traditional unlined pit, pole slab
  8. Improved traditional lined pit, concrete slab
  9. Covered latrine-lined pit, concrete slab, foot operated cover
  10. Traditional VIP latrine
  11. Improved VIP Latrine
  12. Improved VIP Latrine
  13. Traditional latrine with pole and daga walls
  14. Precast concrete walls
  15. Spiral concrete walls
  16. Brick wall and ventilation pipe
  17. Hand washing with Badza Stand
  18. Home-made hand washing near latrine
  19. Bucket and ladle hand washing